Аббревиатуры по фрахтованию
Always Accessible Always Afloat
Always Afloat or Safe Aground. Condition for a vessel whilst in port
Toward the rear (stern) of the ship. Behind.
On or within the ship
ABOVE DECK -
On the deck (not over it - see ALOFT)
Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party
Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)
The hiring of a ship in whole or part
At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
Touching or fast to the bottom
All Going Well
Australian Hold Ladders
AIDS TO NAVIGATION -
Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters
Above the deck of the ship
In or toward the centre of the ship
Arrival Notice - an import document send to the notify party and/or importer's broker containing all necessary arrival info for Customs clearance; normally with freight charges.
A place suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom
Arrival Pilot Station
Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties. A clause usually in a charter party
American Shipbrokers Association
Advance Shipment Notice
Any Safe Port in the World
In the back of the ship, opposite of ahead
Actual time of arrival
Actual time of departure
Any Time Day/Night Sundays and Holidays Included
At right angles to the centreline of the ship
Actual Times Used to Count
Where a seller/shipper issues a 'letter of indemnity' in favour of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading
Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
BALE CAP. -
Cubic capacity of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets
Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo
BALLAST BONUS -
Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage
BAREBOAT CHTR -
Bareboat Charter - Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only. Charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses for the duration.
Before Breaking Bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences
Both Dates Inclusive
The maximum breadth or the greatest width of a ship
Beneath the deck
Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports)
The Baltic and International Maritime Council
(Bill of Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of Affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
Bunker on Board
The forward part of a ship
Bunkers Remaining on Board
Percentage of freight payable to broker (by owners in c/p's) or applicable to sale or purchase
BSS 1/1 -
Basis 1 Port to 1 Port
A vertical partition separating compartments
This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel, Handrails, Stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift.
Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring
Brackish Water Arrival Draft
Currency Adjustment Factor. A fee applied to the shipping costs to compensate for exchange rate fluctuations.
CBFT (or CFT) -
CFR (or C&F) -
Cost and Freight
A map used by navigators
Cost, Insurance & Freight. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or place of discharge.
Completely knocked down
Contract of Affreightment - Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.
Carriage and Insurance paid to...
Certificate of Origin - a signed statement from a semiofficial organization certifying the origin of an export item, required by certain nations.
Contract of Affreightment Charter Party
Closing of Business
Closing of Business London
Cash On Delivery
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
CNEE CONSIGNEE. -
Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment
Custom Of Port
CP (or C/P) -
Charterers Pay Dues
Carriage Paid To
Customary Quick Despatch
Cargo Remaining on Board
Cargo Retention Clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices
Deliver At Frontier
Days all Purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)
Damages for Detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.
Delivered Duty unpaid
Delivered Duty Paid
A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof
Demurrage (Quay Rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified "Free Time" period.
Delivered Ex Quay
Delivered Ex Ship
Despatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround- in dry cargo only
Detention (See DAMFORDET)
Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course
Deadfreight. Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used
Despatch Half Demurrage on All Time Saved Both Ends
Despatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends
Dropping Last Outwards Sea Pilot (Norway)
Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot (Norway)
Dropping Outward Pilot
Department of Transport
Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost
DRAUGHT (or DRAFT) -
Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.
Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted.
DWAT (or DWT) -
Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.
A receeding current
Even If Used
Estimated Time of Arrival - the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled to arrive at its destination.
Estimated Time of Completion
Estimated Time of Departure - the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled to depart from the port/airport of origin.
Estimated Time of Sailing
Fast as can
Free Alongside Ship. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading
Free to Carrier. A modern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarders premises, depot or terminal but not actually on board vessel.
Full Container Load - a container that is fully loaded by cargo, occupying all space, or loaded to the maximum permissable weight. It can contain cargo from multiple shippers, but normally is consigned to the same consignee. The shipment is expected to be delivered to the consignee with the shipper's seal intact.
FD (FDIS) -
Freight Demurrage Deadfreight
Freight Deemed Earned, Discountless And Non-Returnable (Refundable) Ship And Or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost
A cushion, placed between ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent damage
Standard 40’ Container, forty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal container.
Free In/Liner Out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.
Free In/Out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.
Free In/Out Stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.
Free In/Out and Trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.
Free In/Out and Trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.
Free In Trimmed
Free In Wagon
Chartering a Vessel
Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship - an agreement
Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.
Full Liner Terms
Federal Maritime Commission
Force Majeure Excepted
FO (IFO) -
Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO
Free on Board. Seller sees the goods "over the ship’s rail" on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer
For Our Guidance
Free On Quay
Free On Rail
FORCE MAJEURE -
Clause limiting responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers of cargo.
In a line parallel to the keel
Toward the bow of the ship
Free On Truck
First Open Water
Free On Wharf
Free Pratique. Clearance by the Health Authorities
First Refusal. First attempt at best offer that can be matched
The minimum vertical distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale
Freight. Money payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition
FREE DESPATCH -
If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned.
FREE EXINS -
Free of any Extra Insurance (Owners)
FREE OUT -
Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes seafreight only.
Charterers when cancelling agreement sometimes quote 'doctrine of frustration' i.e. vessel is lost, extensive delays.
Fresh Water Arrival Draft
Fresh Water Departure Draft
For Your Guidance
For Your Information
A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment
GLS (GLESS) -
Gencon (GENERAL CONDITIONS)
GN (or GR) -
Grain Capacity. Cubic capacity in 'grain'
Geographical Rotation. Ports in order of calling
General Rate Increase. Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate increase implemented by conference members and applied to base rates.
Gross Registered Tonnage
Good, Safe Berth
Good, Safe Port
The upper edge of a ship's sides
HAGUE RULES -
Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of Lading
An opening in a ship's deck fitted with a watertight cover
Harmless Bulk Fertilizer
Half Despatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends
Half Despatch Working (or Weather) Time Saved
Handy Heavy d.w. (Scrap)
Heavy Metal Scraps
A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo
The main body of a ship
Intercoastal Waterway : bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
International Maritime Organisation
IN &/OR OVER -
Goods carried below and/or on deck
(Refer to comments in covering statement on front page A-F)
Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey
International Transport Workers Federation (Trade Unions). Complies on crewing
International Ships and Port Security System
If Used, Half Time Actually To Count
Institute Warranty Limits
The centreline of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel
A measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6,076 feet) per hour
LANE METER -
A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width.
To hold goods in position by use of Ropes, Wires, Chains or Straps etc.
Latitude. The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.
Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
Time at Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging
Letter of Credit
Less than Container Load - a shipment that takes up only a portion of a consolidated container.
LCL shpts are to be picked up at a CFS only, whereas FCL are to be picked up at a container yard/terminal.
Lowest Current Rate
The side sheltered from the wind
The direction away from the wind. Opposite of windward
The sideways movement of the ship caused by either wind or current
Load Factor. Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4,000 tons carried on a vessel of 10,000 capacity has a load factor of 40%
Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid
Liquefied Natural Gas
Length Overall of the vessel
LOAD LINE -
See PLIMSOLL LINE
Lloyds Open Form
A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed
Letter of Indemnity
The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England
Last Open Water
LS (or LUMPS) -
Lumpsum Freight. Money paid to Shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo
Lashed Secured Dunnaged
Long Ton = 1,016.05 kilogram (2,240 lbs)
Liner Terms Hook/Hook
Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
Inventory of cargo on board
MDO (DO) -
Marine Diesel Oil
Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern
Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)
Memorandum of Agreement
More or Less Charterers Option
More or Less Owners Option
An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier
Mertic Tonne (i.e. 1,000 kilos)
Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel
Not Always Afloat But Safely Aground
Nautical Mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6,076 feet - about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5,280 feet
The art and science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another
National Cargo Bureau
Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport
(Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.
Notice of Readiness
Net Restricted Tonnage
New York Produce Exchange
Open Shelter Deck
Over the side or out of the ship
Protection and Indemnity Insurance
Period of Charter
Per Day Pro Rata
By the Day
PER SE -
Per Hatch Per Day
PLIMSOLL MARK -
PLIMSOLL LINE -
LOAD LINE -
An internationally recognised line painted on the side of merchant ships. When a ship is loaded, the water level is not supposed to go above the line. Water can reach different parts of the line as its temperature and saltiness varies with the season and location. From where Plimsoll Shipping derived its name.
The left side of a ship looking forward. A harbour.
Licence or permission to use a port
Introduction to a charter party
Per Weather Working Day
Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed
(Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.
Remaining On Board
Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.0 metric tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied by the freight rate.
SD (or SID) -
Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only
Statement of condition of the vessel (valid certificates, fully equipped and manned etc. )
Are usually 12.0 meter flat bed road trailers
Stowage Factor. Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo
Shipper - the party in whose name a contract of carriage of goods has been concluded with at carrier or any party by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage.
Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.
Satellite Navigation - A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment
Shipper Owned Container
Statement of Facts
Is the strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the tanks from becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a "spider" appearance
Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading
Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) -
Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included
It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.
Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.
Subject to Enough Merchandise (Availability of cargo). Also, the forward most part of the bow.
The aformost or after part of a ship
Subject (to). Depending upon as a condition
Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain.
Salt Water Arrival Draft
Salt Water Departure Draft
At right angles to the centreline of the ship
The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans
TIME BAR -
Time after which legal claims will not be entered
To Be Named / To Be Nominated
Time Charter - Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc.
Time Charter Party
Standard 20' Container, twenty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal container.
The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck
Transhipment - a shipping arrangement in which a shipment is discharged of the vessel at an intermediate port enroute and subsequently reloaded to another vessel for carriage to its final destinationl
Fore and aft balance of a ship
Unless Sooner Commenced
Unless Used In Which Case Time Actually Used To Count
Vessel Pays Dues
A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed
Movement of a ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway
Whether Customs Cleared Or Not
Whether In Berth Or Not
Whether In Free Pratique Or Not
Toward the direction from which the wind is coming
Whether In Port Or Not
Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming
Weather Permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime
Weather Permitting Day
Weather Working Day
Wire Rods In Collis
When, Where Ready
Wibon, Wccon, Wifpon, Wipon
York Antwerp Rules
To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea
UTC = GMT